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EORS for Alter Cup? #44886
02/22/05 06:48 PM
02/22/05 06:48 PM
Joined: Nov 2002
Posts: 465
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sail7seas Offline OP
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Promotion Relegation in the EORS
Understanding The NORC '94 Racing System

The beauty of the Equal Opportunity Racing System (EORS) is that the result of each race is in the skipper's hands. Each skipper has a chance to win every 'race'. This is done by dividing each race into a series of heats. For larger events expect that there will be an A heat, a B heat and possibly a C heat. (Heats are sometimes called 'fleets'.)


Assignment For The Two Preliminary Races.

The EORS system of Promotion Relegation for the Alter Cup would use an 11 boat fleet for 20 teams, or 10 boats for 18 teams. In order to fairly assign boats to the A ,B heat for the first promotion relegation race, each team will sail two preliminary races using the Matrix System (MS). After two preliminary races (1st 10 sail RED, then 2nd 10 sail BLUE) the results are totaled and "A" and "B" fleets are determined. Then the best preliminary race is counted in the final point total, and is also eligible as a throw-out.


Assignment To The A, B Heat:

After both the Red, Blue divisions have each raced two preliminary races, the race committee will take a little break to figure out which boats are in the A heat, which are in the B heat.


Two UP and Two DOWN (Promotion Relegation):

After the preliminary seeding races, the EORS divides each race into Two of heats which are sailed sequentially, always starting with the B Heat. When the two heats are finished, that particular race is over. At this point all the boats in the race as a whole can be ranked top to bottom, with all those in the top heat ahead of all those in next lower heat and so on.


In other words,

B fleet sails Heat#1, the Top 2'B'fleet teams "promote" UP to A fleet for the Heat#2.
A fleet sails Heat#2, the Bottom 2'A'fleet teams "relegate" DOWN to B fleet for the Heat#3.
The scores for Heats 1 & 2 are totaled and scored as Race #1.

B fleet sails Heat#3, the Top 2'B'fleet teams "promote" UP to A fleet for the Heat#4.
A fleet sails Heat#4, the Bottom 2'A'fleet teams "relegate" DOWN to B fleet for the Heat#5.
The scores for heats 3 & 4 are totaled and scored as Race #2, etc.


Scoring for ALTER CUP

Scoring, with 20 teams and 11 boats for Two UP and Two DOWN:
B fleet is scored 12 thru 20. (nine teams)
A fleet is scored 1 through 11 (eleven teams)

Scoring, with 19 teams and 11 boats for Three UP and Three DOWN:
B fleet is scored 12 thru 19. (eight teams)
A fleet is scored 1 through 11 (ten teams)

Scoring, with 18 teams and 10 boats for Two UP and Two DOWN:
B fleet is scored 11 thru 18. (eight teams)
A fleet is scored 1 through 10 (ten teams)


Boat assignments
As to the matter of boat assignments to accomodate PR use a beach sign up sheet for sign 'in & out' of boat assignments. Such a table watches boat selection, and helps monitor boat damage.

Click below for EORS example after preliminary races.
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/seas/PromReg3.htm

-- Have You Seen This? --
vs Matrix System [Re: sail7seas] #44887
02/22/05 06:59 PM
02/22/05 06:59 PM
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sail7seas Offline OP
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The Matrix System (MS) stacks the deck, yielding inequitable results, at ALL levels.
The MS becomes even more inequitable when a team misses a race or two.

Promotion Relegation always STACKS the top skippers sailing together.
The Matrix system does not create the same fleet structure as 'Promotion Relegation'.

It is a magnitude harder to get a bullet when all the TOP DOGS sail together, they did not sail with the same level off of competition in each race. (basic fault of the MS)

It is so easy to critique the Matrix System (vs Promotion Relegation). I am sure you can think of more.

1. Race 9 Top Dog did NOT sail against Big Dog.
2. Comparing race 15: Big Dog did NOT sail against anyone in the Top Five teams.
3. The Matrix system does not create the same fleet structure as 'Promotion Relegation'.
4. Results could easily change by rearranging the Matrix, when a single point can make a difference. Who sails vs. Who/When?
5. The Matrix system stacks the deck, yielding inequitable results, at ALL levels.
6. The MS deck becomes even more inequitable when a team misses a race or two.
7. MS may require four to six races per round, when PR requires only two Heats per race.

A good scoring system should be consistent with level of competition in each race as is 'promotion relegation'.

Do you believe in a system where we can debate who had the tougher draw is equitable?
It reminds me of 'College football championships'.
'Promotion Relegation' would have not such discussion.

The PR system of scoring is more equitable and has been in use over 10 years now in the R/C community.

The MS does not create the same fleet structure 'PR' makes.
The MS stacks the deck, yielding inequitable results, at ALL levels.
Promotion Relegation always keeps 'THE BEST' sailing together.

The most common response is 'it is to complicated', NOT true!

The beauty of the Equal Opportunity Racing System (EORS) is that the result of each race is in the skipper's hands. Each skipper has a chance to win every 'race'. This is done by dividing each race into a series of heats. For larger events expect that there will be an A heat, a B heat and possibly a C heat. (Heats are sometimes called 'fleets'.)

"Promotion Relegation (PR)" is a fair scoring system that emphasizes SKILL over a bit of luck using the current "matrix" scoring system for the ALTER CUP where results could easily change by rearranging the Matrix, when a single point can make a difference. Who sails vs. Who/When?

Click below for EORS example after preliminary races.
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/seas/PromReg3.htm


Re: vs Matrix System [Re: sail7seas] #44888
02/22/05 09:11 PM
02/22/05 09:11 PM
Joined: Jun 2001
Posts: 3,293
Long Beach, California
John Williams Offline
Carpal Tunnel
John Williams  Offline
Carpal Tunnel

Joined: Jun 2001
Posts: 3,293
Long Beach, California
Hey Chris -

I think I remember you bringing this up two or three years ago somewhere, but I had a beer in my hand at the time. What you're proposing has merit - could you write up something as a proposal for the Alter Cup Committee meeting in Rhode Island next month? Too late to make a change this year, but it is something we can try for next year. There have been several years when post-event discussion focused more on the matrix than the sailing... well, that and Mike Hill's statistical analysis of the individual boats' performances.

Thanks, Chris -


John Williams

- The harder you practice, the luckier you get -
Gary Player, pro golfer

After watching Lionel Messi play, I realize I need to sail harder.
Re: vs Matrix System [Re: John Williams] #44889
02/22/05 09:42 PM
02/22/05 09:42 PM
Joined: Nov 2002
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sail7seas Offline OP
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John,
What should I add to my first post (EORS) for a proposal?
So far a proceedure (two up, two down),
a method for boat assignment, and a scoring example.

Scoring example (EORS) to be used after two preliminary races using Matrix System:
http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/seas/PromReg3.htm

Re: vs Matrix System [Re: sail7seas] #44890
02/23/05 09:15 AM
02/23/05 09:15 AM
Joined: Nov 2002
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sail7seas Offline OP
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sail7seas  Offline OP
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John,
Perhaps, something like below could be simplifed for a formal PROPOSAL if this is what you are looking for?
John, what did you think of the EORS Scoring Example I posted?
Note the below freaked me out the first time I saw it. A modified EORS for the Alter Cup would be just "two UP & two DOWN"
Great wind & waves,
Chris


The NORC 94 RACING SYSTEM.
1.00 INTRODUCTION
This system is designed to produce radio controlled yacht racing that emulates a full size race where all boats race together. Like the Equal Opportunity Racing System (EORS) ‘92, every boat in the race has the opportunity to win the race. This is achieved by dividing the order from the preliminary round into heats as defined on the schedule. For example, taking a two heat race, “B” heat would sail first and the top THREE in this heat would stay on the water and race in “A” heat. At the end of the race there will be an order from first to last placed boats just as in a full sized race. Scoring will take place at this point according to this place order. The heat sizes will have changed during the race. So by reinstating the original heat sizes in the completed race order, the bottom THREE in “A” heat will move down a heat to the “B” heat.
This system allows a possibility of sailing several times in different heats in the course of “one race”. Effectively, NORC ‘94 gives you the opportunity to climb up through the fleet until you reach your peak, just as you would in a full size race. Of course, if you move through the heats you only score once, when you have reached your peak.
The idea is that winning boats from a lower heat sail boats in the heat above. If they are better than those boats they can progress to the next heat. If they are of similar standard they will remain in that heat. If they are worse they will return to the lower heat when the original heat sizes are reinstated for the next race.
2.00 DEFINITION OF HEAT AND GROUP
2.10 HEAT
2.11 A heat is one division of a race where each race comprises between one and three divisions.
2.20 GROUP
2.21 A group is a selection of boats from the total number available to race.
3.00 PRELIMINARY RACES
3.10 PRELIMINARY ROUND
3.11 This should preferably consist of three races for each group of boats as described in 3.20. The number of races may be reduced to two as described in Appendix 1.
3.12 These races may be sailed consecutively, in order to save the time needed to take boats on and off the water between races. Boats may remain in the same group for all races sailed this way.
3.13 Alternatively, a different division of boats into groups may be carried out if boats do not sail in consecutive races.

3.20 DIVISION INTO GROUPS
3.21 The total number of boats available to race shall be divided into approximately equal groups. The number of groups shall be equal to the number of heats to be sailed in the first race as in 4.00.
3.22 The boats for each group shall contain an even distribution of ability based on current NORC handicap, or in the case of NORC handicap system graduates, based on NORC standings.
3.23 For boats that have no current NORC handicap, the selection shall be carried out at random.
4.00 HEAT RACES
4.10 HEAT SIZE
4.11 MAXIMUM HEAT SIZE for NORC events shall be 13 boats.
4.12 The heat size is shown in the schedule.

4.20 ORDER OF HEATS
4.21 The order from the preliminary round will be divided into heat size at the start of the race as shown in the schedule.
4.22 The heats shall be sailed strictly in REVERSE ORDER starting with the lowest heat.
4.23 With the exception of heat “A”, the top THREE in a heat shall sail in the next heat and may stay on the water between the heats.
4.24 At the end of a race the race order shall be divided into initial heat sizes as at the start of the race. With the exception of the lowest heat the bottom THREE in each heat will move down to the heat below.
5.00 RETIREMENT AND HEAT REARRANGEMENT
5.10 BOATS RETIRING FROM THE EVENT
5.11 A boat shall inform the Race Committee, as soon as possible, of her intention to retire from the event.
5.12 At the start of the next race, the Race Committee shall withdraw that boat from those scheduled to race and revise the heat sizes accordingly.

5.20 BOATS UNABLE TO RACE: TEMPORARY RETIREMENT
5.21 Where a boat is unable to start a race for any reason but does not intend to retire from the event, the boat shall not be removed from those scheduled to race until that boat has fallen to the lowest heat.
5.22 A boat scheduled to race in the lowest heat shall INFORM THE RACE COMMITTEE as soon as possible if she is unable to sail for whatever reason. If she has not so informed the Race Committee before the completion of the first race in which she DNS in the lowest heat, it will be assumed that she is in TEMPORARY RETIREMENT until further notice, and the heat sizes shall be revised accordingly.

5.30 BOAT IN TEMPORARY RETIREMENT REJOINING RACING
5.31 A boat wishing to rejoin the race shall inform the Race Committee prior to the start of the race in which the boat intends to sail in order that the appropriate heat rearrangement can be carried out.
6.00 PLACING AND SCORING
6.10 PLACING
6.11 Placing shall be in consecutive order from the first boat in the top heat to the last boat in the bottom heat. DNF, RET, and DNS boats (in this order) shall be placed at the bottom of the heat in which they sailed.
6.12 Where the Race Committee imposes a time limit for racing after the first boat in the race or heat has finished, boats that have not finished at the expiration of the time limit shall be recorded as DNF. (Changed 1998)

6.20 SCORING
6.21 A boat shall score points equal to placing with the following exceptions:
6.22 The first and second boats in any race shall score 0 points and 1.7 respectively.
6.23 A boat that did not finish (DNF) or retires (RET) from a heat shall score one more point than she would have scored had she finished last in her heat and all other boats scheduled to race in her heat had started and finished. A boat that did not compete (DNC) or did not start (DNS) in a heat shall score points equal to the number of boats entered in the event plus one. For preliminary seeding races: A boat that DNC, DNS, DNF or RET in a seeding race shall score points equal to number of boats that started in the largest preliminary seeding race plus one.
6.24 Deleted (1997)
6.25 RRS A1.2 (Boat Retiring Or Disqualified After Finishing) is deleted. (added 1998)
6.26 Scores from the preliminary races shall be included in the total point scores subject to 7.00 (Discards).

6.30 PROTESTS that Require a HEARING and PENALTIES.
6.31 Protests that are not resolved on the water shall not interfere with the sailing of the regatta. Hearings, when required, will be held during lunch break if scheduled and/or immediately after the last race of the day, at the regatta site.
6.32 If a boat chooses not to take the 360 degree turn penalty promptly per RRS E 5.3 and is found to have broken a rule by a protest committee, she shall have added to her net score for the event one half of the number of boats entered in the event, up to a maximum of 10 points. Placing and points awarded in the heat in question are not effected.

6.40 REDRESS
6.41 A Request for Redress by a right-of-way boat for an incident in which the give way boat has accepted responsibility by completing a 360 degrees turn in accordance with RRS E5.3 a) or by retiring (RET), will be allowed the choice of:
1) average points for the day rounded to the nearest whole number or
2) a hearing, in which case the request for redress must meet the NORC Redress Guidelines. All other requests for redress shall require a hearing.
6.42 A boat that has asked for and been granted redress will not be permitted to move up a heat in a multiple heat regatta. It begins the next race in the heats it would have been in without redress, and then has the opportunity to advance to the “A” fleet and win the race.
7.00 DISCARDS
7.10 PRELIMINARY RACES
7.11 Points from one race of the preliminary round shall be temporarily discarded to determine the order for division into heats.
7.12 Preliminary races shall be included for calculating the total number of completed races.

7.20 NUMBER OF DISCARDS
7.21 When the total points for each boat are calculated, discards shall be permitted as follows: 5-10 completed races: 1 discard, 11-18 completed races: 2 discards, and 19 or more completed races: 3 discards.
7.22 Penalty points after a hearing are not discardable.
8.00 BREAKING OF TIES
8.10 When there is a tie between two or more boats, the tie will be broken in favor of the boat with the most first places, and when the tie remains, the most second places and so on, if necessary, for such races as count for total points. When the tie still remains, it will be broken in favor of the boat with the lowest score in the last races of the series and when a tie still remains, then the scores in the penultimate race shall be used and so on, until the tie is broken.
APPENDIX 1: SHORT DURATION EVENTS
1.00 RACES SAILED IN VERY LIGHT WINDS
1.10 The number of preliminary races may be reduced from three, as 3.11, to two in these conditions when the duration of the event is limited.
1.12 The Race Committee shall announce this at any time before the start of the second race of the first group on the water.
SCHEDULE OF HEAT SIZES after the PRELIMINARY ROUND.
2 Heats Required 3 Heats Required
Total # of Boats Boats in A heat, Boats in B Total # of Boats Boats in A heat, Boats in B, then C
14 6, 8 24 7, 7, 10
15 6, 9 25 8, 7, 10
16 7, 9 26 8, 8, 10
17 7, 10 27 8, 8, 11
18 8, 10 28 9, 8, 11
19 8, 11 29 9, 9, 11
20 9, 11 30 9, 9, 12
21 9, 12 31 10, 9, 12
22 10, 12 32 10, 10, 12
23 10, 13 33 10, 10, 13

Note: If 13 or fewer boats are eligible for a race, all shall sail in a single heat.
The maximum heat size for NORC events shall be 13 boats.
The maximum number of boats shall be limited to 33 boats..
REDRESS
The Race Committee shall act as Protest Committee when NORC ‘94 Rule 6.40 applies, and shall be guided by the following RSD document as well as the Additional NORC Redress Guidelines below:
This official ISAF RSD RRC document replaces the old interpretation 2/90 as amended 02/06/94 upon redress procedure.
Guidance to Protest Committee and International Jury members when considering redress:
RRS E6.5 adds radio interference (Very difficult to prove) and entanglement to the list of things that might qualify for redress under RRS 62.1
A definition of entanglement for this purpose might be:
Two or more boats lying together for more than twenty seconds so as no boat is capable of manoeuvring to break free of the other/s.
Protest Committees/Juries will take account of the following:
a) The total time the Boat Claiming Redress (BCR) was entangled (This time should then further be quantified as a proportion of the total race time of the first boat to finish.).
b) The position in the race of the BCR immediately before the entanglement.
c) If the entanglement occurred on the final leg of the race, then the position of the BCR immediately before the entanglement should be awarded, provided that the PC/Jury is satisfied that she was the innocent party and that she took reasonable action to avoid contact. Furthermore that she had subsequently made efforts to break free of the other boat/s to which she was entangled.
d) If the entanglement occurred before the final leg then only the average position of the BCR may be awarded again provided that the PC/Jury is satisfied that she was the innocent party and that she took all reasonable action to avoid contact. Furthermore that she had subsequently made efforts to break free of the other boat/s to which she was entangled.

N Weall ISAF RSD RRC Chairman Issued: 14.03.98
Additional NORC Redress Guidelines
When the Protest Committee, is considering an application for redress according to the rules above, it shall conclude that the following occurred:
 The boat claiming redress (BCR) had the right of way (ROW) at the time of the incident.
 The BCR did not violate RRS 14. Specifically, that there was no damage to either boat. In that the ROW boat shall not be penalized under RRS 14 unless there is contact that causes damage, the BCR does is not requred to show that it acted to avoid contact.
 The BCR has met the requirements of RRS 62.1 as modified by Appendix E. Namely,
62 REDRESS (as modified by Appendix E)
62.1 A request for redress shall be based on a claim that a boat's finishing place in a race or series has, through no fault of her own, been made significantly worse by
(a) an improper action or omission of the race committee or protest committee,
(b) physical damage because of the action of a boat that was breaking a rule of Part 2 or of a vessel not racing that was required to keep clear,
(c) giving help (except to herself or her crew) in compliance with rule 1.1, or
(d) a boat against which a penalty has been imposed under rule 2 or disciplinary action has been taken under rule 69.1(b).
(e) radio interference, or
(f) an entanglement with a boat required to keep clear or give room.

62.2 'The request shall be made in writing within the time limit of rule E6.3. No protest flag is required.'
The Protest Committee shall also address the following issues:
 Redress shall be consistent with RRS 64.2.
RRS 64.2 Decisions on Redress
When the protest committee decides that a boat is entitled to redress under rule 62, it shall make as fair an arrangement as possible for all boats affected, whether or not they asked for redress. This may be to adjust the scoring (see rule A4 for some examples) or finishing times of boats, to abandon the race, to let the results stand or to make some other arrangement. When in doubt about the facts or probable results of any arrangement for the race or series, especially before abandoning the race, the protest committee shall take evidence from appropriate sources.
 Redress may only be granted for the heat during which the incident took place. A boat cannot be awarded points equivalent to finishing ahead of first place in the heat, or points equivalent to finishing worse than last place in the heat.
 Redress may be granted as a place in the particular heat in question. Redress points can equal other points in the same heat.
 A boat receiving redress is not eligible for promotion within the same race the redress is granted under the NORC’94 Racing System. Minor delays due to brief entanglements shall not be granted.
 Although not directly applicable, the following from Appendix T (Sound Signal Starting System) shall be considered:
T7 Failure of a competitor to hear an adequate course, postponement, starting sequence or recall signal will not be grounds for redress.

ORAL PROTEST HEARING GUIDELINES
If the Race Committee wishes allow protests to be submitted orally, consideration may be given to including the following entry in the Sailing Instructions:
 RRS 61.2 is modified in that the protest need not be in writing.
At the end of the heat, when the protesting boat notifies the Race Committee of the intent to protest, ask if the protest will be written or oral. If written, provide protest forms if requested. If the protest will be presented orally, ask the protestor be responsible for notifying all parties of the time and place of the hearing and the particulars of the protest. (rule 63.2)
Also note that RRS 61.3 as modified by Appendix E requires that the protest be submitted to the ‘race office’ within 15 minutes of the end of the heat in which the incident occurred. One way to meet this requirement is to designate the Race Committee as the ‘race office’. Since the Race Committee must be informed of a protest within 5 minutes of the end of a heat anyway (rule E 6.3) the protesting boat need only add the particulars specified in RRS 61.2 to satisfy the rules.
Alternatively, the race committee may wish to indicate in the Sailing Instructions that RRS E 6.3 is changed in that the time limit for delivering the protest is extended until the protest hearing begins and that ‘protest committee’ is substituted for ‘race office’ in rule 61.3.
The following is adapted from RRS Appendix P - Recommendations for Protest Committees
General:
In a protest hearing, the protest committee should weigh all testimony with equal care; should recognize that honest testimony can vary, and even be in conflict, as a result of different observations and recollections; should resolve such differences as best it can; should recognize that no boat or competitor is guilty until a breach of a rule has been established to the satisfaction of the protest committee; and should keep an open mind until all the evidence has been heard as to whether a boat or competitor has broken a rule.
Preliminaries
 Gather a quorum of at least three knowledgeable skippers to act as protest committee.
 Receive the protest, which may be presented orally by the protestor.
 Note when the protest is lodged and when the time limit to file a protest expires.
 Confirm that each party, and the race committee when necessary, is informed of when and where the hearing will be held.
Before the Hearing
Make sure that
 each party is informed of the content of the protest and that the protestee has adequate time to prepare a defense (rule 63.2).
 no member of the protest committee is an interested party. Ask the parties whether they object to any member.
 all boats and people involved are present. If they are not, however, the committee may proceed under rule 63.3(b).
The Hearing
P3.1 Check the validity of the protest or request for redress.
 Were the contents adequate (rule 61.2)? “Who, what (incident and rule) when, and where.”
 Was it delivered in time? If not, is there good reason to extend the time limit (rule 61.3 as modified by RRS E 6.3)?
 When required, was the protestor involved in or a witness to the incident (rule 60.1(a) as modified by RRS E 6.1)?
 When necessary, was 'Protest' hailed correctly (rule 61.1(a) as modified by RRS E6.2)?
 When the hail was not necessary was the protestee informed?
 Decide whether the protest is valid (rule 63.5).
 Once the validity of the protest has been determined, do not let the subject be introduced again unless truly new evidence is available.

P3.2 Take the evidence (rule 63.6).
 Exclude witnesses to the incident except when giving evidence. (rule 63.3 a)
 Ask the protestor and then the protestee to tell their stories. Then allow them to question one another.
 Invite questions from protest committee members.
 Make sure you know what facts each party is alleging before calling any witnesses. Their stories may be different.
 Allow anyone to give evidence, provided that they were within the control area at the time of the incident (rule E 6.7). It is the party who must decide which witnesses to call. The question 'Would you like to hear N?' is best answered by 'It is your choice.'
 Call the protestor's and then the protestee's witnesses (and committee's if any) one by one. Limit parties to questioning witness (they may wander into general statements).
 Invite the protestee to question the protestor's witness first (and vice versa). This prevents the protestor from leading his witness from the beginning.
 Allow a member of the protest committee who saw the incident to give evidence (rule 63.6 as modified by RRS E 6.7) but only in the presence of the parties. The member may be questioned and may remain in the room (rule 63.3(a)).
 Try to prevent leading questions or hearsay evidence, but if that is impossible discount the evidence so obtained.
 Only accept written evidence when both parties agree.
 Consider asking one member of the committee to record evidence, particularly times, distances, speeds, etc.
 Invite first the protestor and then the protestee to make a final statement of their cases, particularly on any application or interpretation of the rules.
P3.3 Find the facts (rule 63.6).
 It is suggested that the protest committee jot down the facts and attempt to resolve doubts one way or the other.
 Call back parties for more questions if necessary.
 When appropriate, draw a diagram of the incident using the facts you have found.
P3.4 Decide the protest (rule 64).
 Excuse all parties to the protest.
 Base the decision on the facts found (if you cannot, find some more facts).
 In redress cases, make sure that no further evidence is needed from boats that will be affected by the decision.
P.3.5 Inform the parties (rule 65).
 Recall the parties and present facts found and the decision. When time presses, it is permissible to read the decision and give the details later.
 Provide a written decision to any party that requests it. (rule 65.2)
 Save any written record of the protest. Such records are important in case of appeal, and will help an Appeals Committee develop a series of useful rulings.
Reopening a Hearing (rule 66)
When a timely request is made for a hearing to be reopened, hear the party making the request, look at any video, etc., and decide whether there is any material new evidence which might lead you to change your decision. Decide whether your interpretation of the rules may have been wrong; be open-minded as to whether you have made a mistake. If none of these applies refuse to reopen; otherwise schedule a hearing.
Photographic Evidence
Note, if binoculars or other aids to vision are permitted, this section may be pertinent.
Photographs and videos can sometimes provide useful evidence but protest committees should recognize their limitations and note the following points:
 The party producing the photographic evidence is responsible for arranging the viewing.
 View the tape several times to extract all the information from it.
 The depth perception of any single-lens camera is very poor; with a telephoto lens it is non-existent. When the camera views two overlapped boats at right angles to their course, it is impossible to assess the distance between them. When the camera views them head on, it is impossible to see whether an overlap exists unless it is substantial.
 Ask the following questions:
 Where was the camera in relation to the boats?
 Was the camera's platform moving? If so in what direction and how fast?
 Is the angle changing as the boats approach the critical point? Fast panning causes radical change.
 Did the camera have an unrestricted view throughout?

LR, 4-29-98, rev


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